1. Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic pain: What works? J Family Pract 2018 67:8 (Aug) 474-83.
2. Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166(7):514-530. doi: 10.7326/M16-2367
3. The association between use of chiropractic care and costs of care among older Medicare patients with chronic low back pain and multiple comorbidities. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016 (Feb); 39(2): 63–75.e2. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2016.01.006
4. The US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality recently published a systematic review of more than 218 publications regarding the effectiveness of various non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain. Noninvasive Nonpharmacological Treatment. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2018 Jun. Report No.: 18-EHC013-EF. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0099929/
5. Nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic pain: What works? J Fam Pract. 2018 Aug;67(8):474;477;480;483.
6. Variations in Patterns of Utilization and Charges for the care of Neck Pain in North Carolina, 2000 to 2009: A Statewide Claims’ Data Analysis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2016;39:240-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2016.02.007
7. Variations in Patterns of Utilization and Charges for the care of Headache in North Carolina, 2000 to 2009: A Statewide Claims’ Data Analysis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2016;39:229-239. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2016.02.008.
8. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010, 18:3 http://www.chiroandosteo.com/content/18/1/3
9. Opioids for Low Back Pain. BMJ 2015;350:g6380. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g6380
10. Association Between Utilization of Chiropractic Services for Treatment of Low-Back Pain and Use of Prescription Opioids. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Jun;24(6):552-556. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0131. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
11. Association Between Utilization of Chiropractic Services for Treatment of Low Back Pain and Risk of Adverse Drug Events. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2018 Jun;41(5):383-388. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2018.01.004. Epub 2018 May 26.
12. Davis MA, et al. Regional Supply of Chiropractic Care and Visits to Primary Care Physicians for Back and Neck Pain. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM. 2015;28(4):481-490.
13. Feldman V, Return on investment analysis of Optum offerings — assumes Network/UM/Claims services; Optum Book of Business Analytics 2013. Analysis as of 12/8/2014.
14. Liliedahl RL, Finch MD, Axene DV, Goertz CM. Cost of care for common back pain conditions initiated with a chiropractic doctor vs medical doctor/ doctor of osteopathy as first line physician: experience of one Tennessee-based general health insurer. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010;33:640–643.
15. Green BN, et al. Integration of Chiropractic Services in Military and Veteran Health Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2016 Apr;21(2):115-30.
16. FDA Education Blueprint for Health Care Providers Involved in the Management or Support of Patients with Pain. May 2017. Accessed on May 12, 2017.
17. Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain-United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65(No. RR-1):1–49.
18. The Official Newsletter of The Joint Commission. Joint Commission Enhances Pain Assessment and Management Requirements for Accredited Hospitals. July 2017 Volume 37 Number 7. Ahead of print in 2018 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals.
19. Joint Commission Online. Revision to Pain Management Standards. http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/23/jconline_november_12_14.pdf